Wesley Snipes planned to make a Black Panther film in 1992, but the project did not come to fruition. In September 2005, Marvel Studios listed a Black Panther film as one of ten films based on Marvel characters intended to be distributed by Paramount Pictures. Mark Bailey was hired to write a script in January 2011. Black Panther was officially announced in October 2014, and Boseman made his first appearance as the character in Captain America: Civil War (2016). Cole and Coogler had joined by then, with additional casting in May. Black Panther was the first Marvel Studios film with a Black director and a predominantly Black cast. Principal photography took place from January to April 2017 at EUE/Screen Gems Studios in the Atlanta metropolitan area, and in Busan, South Korea.
In October 2014, Feige announced that Black Panther would be released on November 3, 2017, with Chadwick Boseman cast as T'Challa / Black Panther. Boseman did not audition for the role, instead discussing what he wanted to do with the part with Marvel, and earned $2 million for appearing in the film. The actor was set to first portray the character in Captain America: Civil War (2016). Snipes gave his support for the project, despite no longer being involved. Feige said that Marvel was considering minority writers and directors for the film, but would prioritize \"the best filmmakers, the best writers, the best directors possible. So I'm not going to say for sure that we're going to hire from any one demographic\". He added that they had met with former Black Panther comics writer Reginald Hudlin. In January 2015, Boseman said that the film was going through a \"brainstorming phase\", and the next month Marvel pushed back the release date to July 6, 2018. Also in February, Feige stated that casting for the film was underway, and added that he was set to meet with directors about the film following the release of Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015) at the end of April.
By May 2015, Marvel had discussions with Ava DuVernay to work on either Black Panther or Captain Marvel (2019) as director. In June, Feige confirmed that he had met with several directors, including DuVernay, and said that he expected a decision to be made by mid- to late 2015. By early July, DuVernay had passed on directing the film, explaining that she had been drawn to the cultural importance of depicting a Black hero to the whole world, but disagreed with Marvel on the story and did not want to compromise her vision. By October 2015, F. Gary Gray and Ryan Coogler had been considered as directors for the film, though negotiations with Coogler had cooled, and Gray had chosen to direct The Fate of the Furious (2017) instead. Joe Robert Cole, a member of the Marvel writers program, was in talks to write the screenplay, and Marvel changed the release date once again, moving it to February 16, 2018. By December, discussions with Coogler were reignited after the successful opening of his film Creed (2015).
In April 2016, Feige said that Coogler was working on the script with Cole, and that filming would begin at the beginning of 2017. He added that the film would be the first Marvel Studios production to feature a \"primarily African-American cast\": Lupita Nyong'o soon entered negotiations to star as T'Challa's love interest, and Michael B. Jordan joined in an undisclosed role, after previously working with Coogler on Fruitvale Station and Creed. Nate Moore, serving as a producer on the film by the end of May, stated that filming would occur in Atlanta, Georgia, with Marvel \"definitely investigating shooting in Africa\" as well.
At San Diego Comic-Con 2016, Nyong'o was confirmed for the film, in the role of Nakia, while Jordan's role was revealed to be Erik Killmonger. Also announced was Danai Gurira as Okoye. Coogler confirmed that filming would begin in January 2017. Additional casting occurred from September 2016 until the start of filming, with Winston Duke cast as M'Baku, a role that Yahya Abdul-Mateen II had also tested for as well as Michael James Shaw, who was later cast as Corvus Glaive in Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and Avengers: Endgame (2019), out of interest of visiting Africa before passing on the role; Forest Whitaker as Zuri; Daniel Kaluuya as W'Kabi; Angela Bassett as T'Challa's mother, Ramonda; Sterling K. Brown as N'Jobu; and Letitia Wright in an unspecified role, later to be revealed as Shuri. Dominique Thorne, who would go on to play Riri Williams / Ironheart in the sequel Black Panther: Wakanda Forever (2022), also auditioned to play Shuri. Florence Kasumba was revealed to be reprising her role as Ayo from Captain America: Civil War. Amandla Stenberg, who is biracial and light skinned, was considered for a role in the film but was not comfortable taking the place of a dark-skinned actor, and described her decision to pass on the role as \"really challenging\". By January 2017, Marvel received permission from the Oakland, California-based public transit agency AC Transit to use their logo in the film for the opening flashback sequence. The setting was chosen due to Coogler growing up in that area.
The production team was inspired by Ta-Nehisi Coates's run on Black Panther, who was writing the comic at the same time as they were working on the film. Of particular inspiration was Coates's poetic dialogue, Brian Stelfreeze's art, and \"some of the questions that it's asking\". The film was also inspired by the comic runs of Jack Kirby, Christopher Priest (which Coogler felt most influenced the film), Jonathan Hickman, and Hudlin. Characters for the film were picked from throughout the comics based on what worked for the film's story. The ceremonial betrothal aspect of the Dora Milaje was not adapted from the comics for the film. Coogler had hoped to include Spider-Man villain Kraven the Hunter early in the process because of a scene in Priest's run that had T'Challa fighting Kraven, but the rights to the character were not available due to Sony Pictures owning all rights to Spider-Man characters. Donald Glover and his brother Stephen made some minor contributions to an early draft of the script, developing the relationship between T'Challa and his younger sister Shuri. Moore noted that an early script had more scenes outside of Wakanda to explore \"what it means to be African and African-American in the world a bit more\", and hoped these could be revisited in a later film, particularly a \"super cool\" sequence that was storyboarded before being cut. Coogler and Robert Cole had considered including the Golden Age black hero Eli Bradley / Patriot for a while, but they ultimately excluded him to focus on Wakanda. Eli Bradley was eventually featured in the Disney+ miniseries The Falcon and the Winter Soldier (2021), portrayed by Elijah Richardson.
The costumes for T'Challa combined his role as king and as the head of the military, including combining a kente cloth cloak with military boots. Carter also used distinct colors and patterns for each of Wakanda's tribes, such as green with shells for the River Tribe based on the Suri; blue with wood for the Border Tribe; black with royal purple for the Black Panther and the Royal Palace; plums and purples for the Merchant Tribe in reference to the Tuareg; and ochre for the Mining Tribe inspired by the Himba. Three out of every five people in Wakanda go barefoot. The Wakandans wear \"normal\" clothes outside of the country, with the colors of their costumes kept consistent. Overall, Carter created 700 costumes for the film, working with \"an army\" of illustrators, designers, mold makers, fabric dyers, jewelry makers and more.
Principal photography had begun by January 21, 2017, at EUE/Screen Gems Studios in the Atlanta metropolitan area, under the working title Motherland. Filming also took place at Pinewood Atlanta Studios, and in the Sweet Auburn neighborhood in Atlanta, which doubled as Oakland; the High Museum of Art, which served as the fictional Museum of Great Britain in London; and Atlanta City Hall, which served as a United Nations building. Cinematographer Rachel Morrison, who was eager to work on Black Panther after working with Coogler on Fruitvale Station, first watched all of the other MCU films to understand the established \"language\". She wanted to \"push\" that language and feature more contrast in color. Visual effects supervisor Geoff Baumann provided Morrison with before-and-after shots of scenes from Civil War so she could understand what elements are captured on set and what is created digitally. She filmed in 3.4K ArriRaw with Arri Alexa XT Plus cameras and Panavision Primo lenses, primarily using a two-camera set-up with a third or fourth camera on occasion. Morrison said that lighting was her biggest challenge, the magnitude of which \"was much bigger than I'd experienced before\", and made extensive use of Arri SkyPanel LED light fixtures, which she could preprogram from an iPad. Some sets were completely surrounded by SkyPanels.
Additional filming took place in South Korea, with the city of Busan serving as the setting of a car chase scene that involved 150 cars and over 700 people. Coogler and Morrison referenced the car chase sequences from Bullitt (1968), Drive (2011), and The French Connection (1971), taking the best elements from each for Black Panther's sequence. Filming in Busan began on March 17, at the Jagalchi Fish Market. Filming moved to Gwangalli Beach on March 21, with other South Korean filming locations including Marine City in the Haeundae District and at the Gwangandaegyo Bridge. The production crew hired hundreds of current and former film students from local universities as staff or assistant staff during the South Korea filming. Filming in the country wrapped on March 27, with additional location shooting also taking place at the Rwenzori Mountains and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. John Marzano served as cinematographer for aerial footage of South Africa, Zambia, Uganda, and South Korea. At CinemaCon 2017, Wright was revealed to be portraying Shuri in the film. Filming concluded on April 19, 2017. 153554b96e