It was Frank Whittle, a British pilot, who designed and patented the first turbo jet engine in 1930. The Whittle engine first flew successfully in May, 1941. This engine featured a multistage compressor, and a combustion chamber, a single stage turbine and a nozzle.
At the same time that Whittle was working in England, Hans von Ohain was working on a similar design in Germany. The first airplane to successfully use a gas turbine engine was the German Heinkel He 178, in August, 1939. It was the world's first turbojet powered flight.
The ramjet is the most simple jet engine and has no moving parts. The speed of the jet "rams" or forces air into the engine. It is essentially a turbojet in which rotating machinery has been omitted. Its application is restricted by the fact that its compression ratio depends wholly on forward speed. The ramjet develops no static thrust and very little thrust in general below the speed of sound. As a consequence, a ramjet vehicle requires some form of assisted takeoff, such as another aircraft. It has been used primarily in guided-missile systems. Space vehicles use this type of jet.
The SAAB-built Swedish Air Force JA37 Viggen jet fighter swept in low above the bay, then arched straight up into the sky in a magnificent demonstration of the plane's versatility and speed, followed by a delta-winged fighter that successfully applied an ''exclamation point'' to the performance.
The 9000 turbo is really aimed at the rest of the world, not Sweden. ''It will have a limited place in the Nordic countries,'' reports Georg Karnsund, president of the SAAB-Scania Group, of which the car division is a part. ''Turbos are downplayed in Sweden,'' he adds. While SAAB sells about 25 percent of its total car production in Sweden, it sells only 12 percent of its turbos. 2b1af7f3a8