I have used several sets of these demon eyes, paired with Morimoto XBT control module, and the mounting is simple, and low profile. Easily controlled with the Morimoto app, and adds a great look to the headlights. This has been my go to for demon eyes!
Edit: To clarify, before the update the CCW rotation just wasn't present in the personality at all. After the update, it appears between 1-2, which means only extreme fine control and caution is needed to get it set correct. However, we're unable to stop and start back the other direction without dropping the prism first...which is a bigger concern. Our modified personality works fine, so our show is alright.
The in situ continuous strength of the crust is one of the most fundamental and vital information in various research fields of earth sciences. In geological and geophysical research in subduction zones in particular, the rock strength is necessary for evaluating development mechanisms of accretionary prism/forearc basins1,2, spatiotemporal variations in the stress state3,4,5, and fault reactivation potentials (slip tendency)6,7. The triaxial compression experiment is a common approach to measuring the strength of rock core materials recovered by deep-sea drilling8,9. Assumptions of the in situ stress conditions, however, are necessary for experimental strength measurements. As the experiments depend on core quality and availability, the experimentally determined strength data is intermittent and its continuous profile cannot be visualised. Even at the Nankai Trough, the most studied plate subduction zone by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)10, we were forced to utilise either the strength indirectly estimated through the empirical correlation between the strength and P-wave velocity or the experimental strength from limited cores11,12,13. A similar situation also arises in most offshore drilling sciences14. Despite its importance, the depth profile of in situ strength has been practically left unknown. Therefore, we propose a method for the direct and continuous measurement of the relative in situ rock strength using only drilling performance parameters. Drilling parameters can be easily obtained from any drill hole, even in non-coring and non-logging operations or in challenging environments.
Here, we define a background-removed mechanical parameter, the equivalent strength (EST), derived from only Tr, bit depth, and pipe rotation speed measured at the surface of the rig during drilling. The proposed method was applied to drilling data obtained from IODP Site C0002 at the Nankai Trough, which is the main site for deep drilling to the seismogenic zone, to evaluate the continuous in situ strength in the Nankai accretionary prism. This method allows estimation of the strength without assuming uncertain in situ conditions (e.g., stress and fluid pressure conditions) or using special techniques. The continuous strength was also evaluated by applying previously obtained drilling parameters, which enabled us to clarify the strength profile extracted from the limited experimental strength data.
P-wave velocity at Site C0002 and strength profiles derived from the triaxial test, P-wave velocity, and drilling parameters. The depth profile of the P-wave velocity was acquired from logging-while-drilling in Holes A, F, N, and P10,28,29. Each line colour indicates the drill hole from which the logging data were obtained. The black EST line is the running average of all holes within 5 data points (Fig. 2). The red squares in the column are the measured strengths obtained in laboratory experiments9, and the light blue dots show the strengths estimated from the sonic velocity-porosity-strength relation13.
The core sample strengths under in situ conditions determined by triaxial compression experiments9 are consistent with the EST (red squares in Fig. 3). The experiments were conducted on intact specimens, assuming that the pore pressure is hydrostatic and the vertical stress is the minimum principal stress (i.e., reverse-fault stress regime)11. However, the current accretionary prism lies in a strike-slip faulting regime5,12. Therefore, the experimental strength may be overestimated compared to the actual in situ strength, suggesting that the EST may also be overestimated.
We proposed an evaluation of the depth profile of the equivalent strength (EST) to investigate continuous variations in the mechanical properties. Here, we define the EST based on the stress supplied to the formation assuming a simplified bit shape (see Supplementary Fig. S1) as:
Pressure, clay mineral content, and unit classification profiles for Site C0002 (after Tobin et al. 2015, 2020; Underwood 2017a, b; Kitajima et al. 2020). The lithospheric pressure is calculated from the overburden stress, which is derived from the rock density, and the hydrostatic pore pressure is calculated using a fluid density of 1.024 g/cm3
Depth profile of the friction coefficient obtained via analysis of the cuttings at Site C0002. Friction coefficient obtained at a displacement of 8 mm is shown by orange filled circles, and the lower and upper data (orange open circle) are obtained at displacements of 2 mm and 16 mm, respectively. The black open circles, squares, and diamond indicate data from previous studies at Site C0002 (Takahashi et al. 2014; Okuda et al. 2021; Bedford et al. 2021)
Cross section of the Kumano transect across the Nankai accretionary prism (modified after Tobin et al. 2020), constructed using data from various drilling sites during the NanTroSEIZE expeditions, with the frictional properties at Sites C0002 (this study, Takahashi et al. 2014), C0009 (Takahashi et al. 2014), C0004/10 (Roesner et al. 2020), C0006 and C0011 (Okuda et al. 2021), and C0012 (Ikari et al. 2013a)
Lens (cover) for MSL LED light module. This lens features a high profile to emphasize a higher light output on an angle off 180°, in order to provide a greater viewing angle. The prism structure of the inside of the lens provides a crisp light output. The lens is UV stabilized in order to prevent fast yellowing. Material: Poly carbonate (Bayer Makrolon, 2807, UV stabilized). Poly carbonate is permitted by the DOT for use on trailers without a cover (impact resistent). Screws included.
Design and performance of a two-stage optical beam shaping system based on a plastic fiber-bundle prism-coupled waveguide is described in this study. Such systems offer practical means to modify and change the output beam shape at two stages and also provide quantitative information concerning the output beam intensity profile. It is possible to obtain reflection and image transmittance data by using a light source for the illumination and image analysis by a CCD/digital camera. Using the active lighting, the reflection data and image profiles for the output beam are obtained by a CCD camera and presented in this study. The photograph picture of the illuminating LED beam just at its output point shows a circular shape with a radius of about 5 mm. Picture of the fiber-bundle output beam is also taken, which shows a linear arrangement of circular spot lights almost similar in cross section. The output beam cross section at this stage is in rectangular shape with a dimension of 30 mm width and 3 mm height. In another study CCD images at prism exit face is obtained and image profile is investigated. The final output beam cross section at the second stage of beam shaping is a square with a dimension of about 5 by 5 mm. The transmitted output beam power is also measured at different stages. The conversion efficiency for the fiber bundle at first stage beam shaping is about 70% and for the overall system is about 15%. In another study the relative reflected light off the prism entering face is measured by using two fiber probes in the stripe cable, which shows the ability to monitor such reflections for selecting the prism duct with a lower reflection loss.
Yamada, Yasuhiro, McNeill, Lisa, Moore, J. Casey and Nakamura, Yasuyuki (2011) Structural styles across the Nankai accretionary prism revealed from LWD borehole images and their correlation with seismic profile and core data: Results from NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 expeditions. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 12, Q0AD15. (doi:10.1029/2010GC003365).
Four drill sites of IODP NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 Expedition transected the Nankai Trough, offshore SW Japan, from the deformation front to the Kumano fore-arc basin. Borehole resistivity images from the logging-while-drilling (LWD) data were analyzed to extract orientations of faults, fractures, and bedding planes to examine the structural styles. On the basis of these features, drilling intervals were classified into fore-arc basin deposits, surface slope sediments, and deformed accretionary wedge, and these can be compared with characteristics from seismic profiles and core structural data. Bedding orientations identified in these three data sets are generally comparable, but the difference in resolution between the data sets produces different results in interpretation where geology is highly deformed or includes finer internal structures. Faults can also be correlated between these three data sets, but the differences in their appearance require special attention for accurate correlation. Many faults imaged in seismic profiles actually consist of microfracture systems, as shown in cores, that can also be identified in borehole images. Some clear faults in seismic profiles cannot be identified in borehole images, probably because of their minimal resistivity contrast with the surrounding rocks or a more complex fault zone at the borehole scale. These results suggest that these three data sets can be used to extract not only the general structure but also different styles of deformation at different scales from core samples (mm to cm), to LWD (mm to 10 m), to seismic (10 m to tens of km). This correlation requires a deep understanding of the resolution and shortcomings of each methodology. 2b1af7f3a8