Re Cook Crack Cocaine Resin
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Cocaine and its trafficking have been a serious problem in the United States for the better part of a century, and the emergence of crack cocaine as an alternate form of the drug only complicated and intensified the issue.
Unlike powder cocaine, which takes the form of a glossy white crystalline powder, crack cocaine looks like small nuggets or rocks with an off-white color, usually packaged in plastic bags. This color and the size and texture of crack cocaine can vary depending on the batch and how it is produced.
Although crack and cocaine are both derived from the cocoa plant, cocaine is the drug in a powdered form. To make crack, cocaine powder is mixed with water and another substance, typically baking soda. The mixture is boiled, solidified, and broken into small, uneven chunks that pop and crackle when hot. Cocaine is usually snorted. While crack can be injected, it is typically smoked or inhaled. Both are dangerous, highly addictive drugs that ravage the mind and body very quickly, and both can lead to many serious effects, including stroke, seizures, and cardiac arrest.Although crack is substantially less expensive than regular cocaine, it becomes very costly when the brain becomes accustomed (or tolerant) to the drug and increasingly larger doses of crack are needed to achieve the desired high.
Crack belongs to a class of drugs known as stimulants, which includes illegal drugs such as meth, ecstasy, and cocaine. Legal stimulants include prescription medications like Dexedrine, Adderall, and Ritalin, as well as tobacco, energy drinks, and caffeine. All stimulants dramatically increase energy levels and bring on behavioral changes such as hyperactivity, increased alertness, and nervousness. A surplus of energy may cause unusual shaking or fidgeting.A person under the influence of crack may be more talkative than usual, and speech may be fast or rambling. Increased energy can also show up as irritability, anger, volatile changes in mood, and unpredictable, erratic or bizarre behavior.
Freebasing is one of the most common ways of smoking cocaine or crack, producing an intense rush of pleasure. This method involves melting the crack to form a vapor, which is inhaled. People who freebase crack may place the crack on a piece of tin foil, heat it from below and inhale the vapors with a straw or hollow pen. Foil used for freebasing is often wadded-up, and will probably burn marks.
Crack cocaine is usually smoked or freebased, but it can also be injected, often by heating the crack in the bowl of a spoon. A hypodermic needle is inserted into the warm liquid before it is injected.Crack users are often creative when it comes to containers, which might include small plastic bags, empty lipstick containers, pill bottles, empty cigarette packs, or breath mint containers.
Perhaps the most misunderstood and often misrepresented cannabis products are concentrates. Wax, shatter, dabs, oil, and resin are just some of the concentrates on the market, and some media outlets have likened these to hard narcotics such as crack cocaine.
There is a great deal of misconception around the safety of using cannabis concentrates as well. Many claim that the use of torches or blistering hot nails likens the practice of dabbing to doing hard narcotics like crack cocaine.
Associated equipment: In addition to the special packaging bath salts come in, nearly all of the same implements, equipment and paraphernalia used for cocaine, heroin, crack and meth are also used for bath salts.
Table 1b shows that in 2018-19, Police Scotland reported that they seized 125 kilograms (kg) of heroin, 386 kg of cocaine and 5 kg of crack cocaine from drug supply crimes. In 2019-20, Police Scotland seized 223 kg of heroin, 131 kg of cocaine and 4 kg of crack cocaine.
Patient-Dependent: Many risk factors have been identified for statin-associated myopathy, including female gender, advanced age, and low body mass index.3 Patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, untreated hypothyroidism, and renal or hepatic disease have also been shown to be at increased risk.3,7,17,18 Additionally, heavy alcohol use, crack cocaine use, increased exercise, and a diet rich in grapefruit juice may predispose patients to muscle breakdown.17-19
The effects of cocaine are similar to amphetamines and crack in that they create physical and mental arousal. When cocaine is snorted the effect is almost immediate and then peaks and fades within 15 - 30 minutes. This often results in users repeating their use almost every 20 minutes or so in order to maintain the desired effect.
In order to be consumed by humans, the drugs contained in plants need to be released from the plant cells. For medicinal or non-medicinal use, drugs are often extracted chemically. But in the case of non-medicinal use, drugs are also obtained by smoking the plant (e.g., tobacco, marijuana, opium) (see Module 1), smoking the extracted compound (e.g., crack cocaine), or chewing the dried leaves (e.g. chewing tobacco or coca leaves). The extraction of drugs, especially alkaloids, from plants is based on their chemical properties (acid-base characteristics) and their solubility in water versus an organic solvent.
MoroccoMarch 2005 I. SummaryMorocco continues to be a major producer and exporter of cannabis. It produced an estimated 47,400 metric tons of cannabis in 2003, providing for potential cannabis resin (hashish) production of 3,080 metric tons, according to a joint study released in late 2003 by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and Morocco's Agency for the Promotion and the Economic and Social Development of the Northern Prefectures and Provinces of the Kingdom (APDN). A Moroccan government (GOM) study examining production levels for 2004 is still underway. Evidence continues to indicate the United States is not a major recipient of drugs from Morocco. According to the UNODC report, an estimated 134,000 hectares of land were used to cultivate cannabis in 2003, greatly surpassing the GOM's earlier estimates of a growing area covering a total of 15,000-20,000 hectares. The UNODC study also states that approximately 800,000 Moroccans (2.7 percent of the country's 2002 population) were involved in cannabis cultivation. Morocco's efforts to combat cannabis cultivation are made more difficult by limited short-term economic alternatives for those involved in its production. Morocco is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. II. Status of CountryMorocco consistently ranks among the world's largest producers and exporters of cannabis, and its cultivation and sale provide the economic base for much of northern Morocco. Only very small amounts of narcotics produced in or transiting through Morocco reach the United States. According to the UNODC report, the illicit trade in Moroccan cannabis resin generates approximately $12 billion a year. Independent estimates indicate that the returns from cannabis cultivation range from $16,400-$29,800 per hectare (little of which goes to the grower himself), compared with an average of $1,000 per hectare for one possible alternative, corn. According to EU law enforcement officials, Moroccan cannabis is typically processed into cannabis resin or oil and exported to Europe, Algeria, and Tunisia. To date, Morocco has no enterprises that use dual-use precursor chemicals, and is thus neither a source nor transit point for them. While there has been a small but growing domestic market for harder drugs like heroin and cocaine, cannabis remains the most widely used illicit drug in Morocco. Although there is no substantial evidence of widespread trafficking in heroin or cocaine, press reports suggest Latin American cocaine traffickers may have started using well-established cannabis smuggling routes to move cocaine into Europe. III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2004Policy Initiatives. In May, the Interior Ministry announced the government was drafting a \"new integrated plan\" to fight drug trafficking and was considering revitalizing the National Commission of the Struggle Against Drugs. The new plan will gradually reduce the areas in which cannabis is grown, intensify border controls, expand regional and international cooperation in training, and include an aggressive public awareness campaign. The GOM's partnership with the UNODC in conducting the 2003 cannabis survey reflects the GOM's most significant effort to compile accurate and comprehensive data about narcotics production. Throughout the 1980's, the GOM worked in conjunction with the UN to devise a response to the unique geographic, cultural and economic circumstances that confront the many people involved in the cultivation of cannabis in northern Morocco. Joint projects to encourage cultivation of alternative agricultural products included providing goats for dairy farming, apple trees, and small bee-keeping initiatives. This effort also included paved roads, modern irrigation networks, and health and veterinary clinics. In the 1990's, the GOM has continued its focus on development alternatives in Morocco's northern provinces through the work of APDN and the Tangier Mediterranean Special Agency (TMSA). In June 2003, TMSA oversaw the groundbreaking of the centerpiece of its northern development program, the Tanger-MED port, which is set to become Morocco's primary maritime gateway to the world. Accomplishments. In September, Morocco and France agreed to reinforce bilateral counternarcotics cooperation by deploying liaison officers to Tangiers and France. Morocco has legislation providing the maximum allowable prison sentence for drug offenses to 30 years, as well as fines for narcotics violations ranging from $20,000-$80,000. Ten years imprisonment remains the typical sentence for major drug traffickers arrested in Morocco. The Ministry of Justice has drawn up a draft law to further strengthen drug trafficking sentences. Law Enforcement Efforts. In May, the Criminal Court of Tetouan sentenced convicted drug trafficker Mounir Erramach to 20 years in prison for drug trafficking and related charges and fined him $375 million for customs and criminal violations. The court also handed down sentences ranging from one month in jail to life imprisonment to 26 other defendants in the case, including a rival drug kingpin who is still at large. The Court of Appeals of Tetouan upheld in December the majority of these sentences, including those of the two lead defendants, but reduced the sentences of four defendants and acquitted three others. In February, the GOM dismantled a small-scale crack cocaine smuggling network in Marrakech, leading to the seizure of 70 grams of the drug and the sentencing of 22 individuals to prison terms varying from one month to six years. As part of a 1992 counternarcotics initiative, an estimated 10,000 police were detailed to drug interdiction efforts in the North and Rif mountains in 1995. Since then, approximately every six months, the GOM has rotated personnel into this region and continued to maintain narcotics checkpoints. Moroccan forces also staff observation posts along the Mediterranean coast, and the Moroccan Navy carries out routine sea patrols and responds to information developed by the observation posts. None of these efforts, however, has changed the underlying reality of extensive cannabis cultivation and trafficking in northern Morocco. Corruption. Investigations into charges of alleged \"abuse of power, corruption, embezzlement of public funds, drug trafficking,\" and violations of professional confidentiality by senior police officers and customs officials, as well as magistrates, court clerks, and other local government officials linked to the Erramach case, were still underway in December. Despite enforcement efforts in this case, corruption, at some level, is likely to play a role in Morocco's continuing trafficking of cannabis products. Agreements and Treaties. The U.S. and Morocco cooperate in judicial matters through a convention on mutual legal assistance. Morocco is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol amending the Single Convention. Morocco is a party to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Cultivation/Production. The center of cannabis production continues to be the province of Chefchaouen, although production has expanded in the last 20 years north to the outskirts of Tangiers, west to the coastal city of Larache, and east toward Al Hoceima. According to the UNODC report, small farmers in the northern Rif region grow most cannabis, where an estimated 27 percent of arable land is dedicated to its cultivation. Production also occurs on a smaller scale in the Souss valley of the South. The UNODC survey found that 75 percent of villages and 96,600 farms in the Rif region cultivate cannabis, representing 6.5 percent of all farms in Morocco. The GOM has stated its commitment to the total eradication of cannabis production, but given the economic and historical dependence on cannabis in the northern region, eradication is only feasible if accompanied by a well-designed development strategy involving reform of local government and a highly subsidized crop substitution program. Moroccan officials have indicated that crop substitution programs thus far appear to have made little headway in providing economic alternatives to cannabis production. The amount of cannabis production measured in 2003 suggests that the crop's cultivation has seen a steady increase over the past few years, to the detriment of other agricultural activities. The UNODC report warned that this agricultural monoculture represents an extreme danger to the ecosystem, as the extensive use of fertilizers and forest removal continue to be the methods of choice to make room for cannabis cultivation. Drug Flow/Transit. The primary ports of export for Moroccan cannabis are Oued Lalou, Martil and Bou Ahmed on the Mediterranean coast. Most large shipments bound for Spain travel via fishing vessels and private yachts. Shipments of up to two tons increasingly are being confiscated on smaller \"zodiac\" speedboats that reportedly are capable of making roundtrips to Spain in one hour. Smugglers also continue to ship cannabis via truck and car through the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the Moroccan port of Tangiers, crossing the Straits of Gibraltar by ferry. According to the UNODC, Spain still accounts for the world's largest portion of cannabis resin seizures (57 percent of global seizures and 75 percent of European seizures in 2001). The Moroccan press reported that some 800 tons of Moroccan cannabis resin were seized in Spain in 2004. Given its proximity to Morocco, Spain is a key transfer point for Europe-bound Moroccan cannabis resin. Domestic Programs. The GOM is concerned about signs of an increase in domestic heroin and cocaine use, but does not aggressively promote reduction in domestic demand for these drugs or for cannabis. It has established a program to train the staffs of psychiatric hospitals in the treatment of drug addiction. In partnership with UNODC, the Ministry of Health is exploring the relationship between drug use and HIV/AIDS infection in Morocco. Moroccan civil society and some schools are active in promoting counternarcotics use campaigns. IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and ProgramsU.S. Policy Initiatives. U.S. policy goals in Morocco are designed to provide training in law enforcement techniques and to promote the GOM's adherence to its obligations under relevant bilateral and international agreements. U.S.-supported efforts to strengthen money laundering laws and efforts against terrorist financing may also contribute to the GOM's ability to monitor the flow of money from the cannabis trade. Bilateral Cooperation. According to customs officials in northern Morocco, USG-funded border security training and equipment contributed directly to the dismantling of 37 smuggling and trafficking operations in the Nador region in 2003. Road Ahead. The United States will continue to monitor the narcotics situation in Morocco, cooperate with the GOM in its counternarcotics efforts, and, together with the EU, provide law enforcement training, intelligence, and other support where possible. 153554b96e